In response to an acute infection, trauma, or inflammation, white blood cells release a substance called colony-stimulating factor (CSF). CSF stimulates the bone marrow to increase white blood cell production. In a person with normally functioning bone marrow, the numbers of white blood cells can double within hours if needed. An increase in the number of circulating leukocytes is rarely due to an increase in all five types of leukocytes. When this occurs, it is most often due to dehydration and hemoconcentration. In some diseases, such as measles, pertussis and sepsis, the increase in white blood cells is so dramatic that the picture resembles leukemia. Leukemoid reaction, leukocytosis of a temporary nature, must be differentiated from leukemia, where the leukocytosis is both permanent and progressive.