Anders Breivik , known as Norway’s “laughing gunman,” killed 77 people, many of them children, in 2011. Norway officials amassed pages and pages of analysis of the horrific crime, but almost nobody noticed that the smirking Breivik was taking large quantities of mind-altering chemicals, the Daily Mail reported . In this case, the substances are an anabolic steroid called stanozolol, combined with an amphetamine-like drug called ephedrine, plus caffeine. The authorities and most of the media were more interested in his non-existent belief in fundamentalist Christianity, the Mail reported.
Laws and Penalties: Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth. The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal. Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense. The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense. If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double. While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS. State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).
Some evidence from non-randomized small trials suggests that intravenous pulse steroid therapy twice a week may be associated with fewer side effects and may be more effective than oral steroid therapy for the treatment of Graves' eye disease. See High-dose intravenous corticosteroid therapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy. J Endocrinol Invest. 2001 Mar;24(3):152-8. and Graves' orbitopathy activation after radioactive iodine therapy with and without steroid prophylaxis J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Sep;94(9):3381-6 . Furthermore, weekly intravenous steroid therapy appeared to be associated with a better treatment outcome compared to daily therapy with oral steroid tablets, as described in Randomized, single blind trial of intravenous vs. oral steroid monotherap In Graves' orbitopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jul 5; [Epub ahead of print] . In contrast, treatment with steroids does not seem to adversely impact the success of the treatment for hyperthyroidism Glucocorticoids do not influence the effect of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005 Jul;153(1):15-21.